Ectoparasites: Fleas

The most common external parasite of the dog and cat is the flea. Fleas love warm, humid environments and do not survive for long periods in extreme heat, cold, or low humidity. Depending on where you live, fleas can definitely be a year-round concern, though we tend to have heightened awareness during warmer weather. Fleas are wingless insects and cannot fly, but they are capable of jumping as high as 2 feet. Adult fleas feed exclusively on the blood of …

Mammary Tumors in Rats


Mammary tumors are the most common type of tumor diagnosed in female rats. While these tumors can occur anywhere within mammary tissue, they are most commonly found in the armpit, abdomen, and groin area. Mammary tumors can occur in young rats but are typically diagnosed in rats over 18 months old. Mammary tumors can occur in male rats but are very rare.

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Classification of Tumors

Mammary tumors can be divided into two groups, mammary fibroadenomas and mammary adenocarcinomas.

A …

Companion Bird Nutrition


Proper nutrition is vital to the health of companion birds. It has been found that improper nutrition is responsible for 90 percent of the health problems and the leading cause of death in companion birds. To make sure that your companion bird is receiving the proper nutrition, it is important to determine the type of diet that best suits its species, age, and current state of health. An avian veterinarian is the best source of information when choosing the …